- “By the end of the 15th century, "Standard English" was established in the City of London. A mixture of London speech with elements from East Midlands, Middlesex and Essex,”
- Non-rhoticity, meaning the r at the ends of words isn’t prounounced (mother sounds like “muhthuh”).
- Trap-bath split, meaning that certain a words, like bath, can’t, and dance are pronounced with the broad-a in father.
- The vowels tend to be a bit more conservative than other dialects in Southern England, which have undergone significant vowel shifting over the past century.
- Dame Judi Dench (See video to the right)
- Working class accent in the East End
- Raised vowel in words like trap and cat so these sounds like “trep” and “cet.”
- Non-rhoticity and Trap-bath split
- London vowel shift: The vowel sounds are shifted around so that Cockney “day” sounds is pronounced IPA dæɪ (close to American “die”) and Cockney buy verges near IPA bɒɪ (close to American “boy”).
- Glottal Stopping: the letter t is pronounced with the back of the throat (glottis) in between vowels; hence better becomes IPA be?ə (sounds to outsiders like “be’uh”).
- L-vocalization: The l at the end of words often becomes a vowel sound Hence pal can seem to sound like “pow.” (I’ve seen this rendered in IPA as /w/, /o,/ and /ɰ/.)
- Th-Fronting: The th in words like think or this is pronounced with a more forward consonant depending on the word: thing becomes “fing,” this becomes “dis,” and mother becomes “muhvah.”
- British Singer Lily Allen (See video to the right)
- A combination of Cockney and Standard English, Estuary English originated in southeast England. Since then, it has spread to Norwich and west towards Cornwall.
- Emphasizes prepositions and auxillary verbs
- Grammatically more proper than Cockney
- /r/ realization - sounds more like an American "r" than a Cockney "r"
- West Country encompasses several accents in southwest England.
- Rhoticity - the letter "r" is pronounced after vowels. It sounds more like an American "r" than a Standard English "r."
- Frequent use of "to be."
- The final "y" is pronounced as /ei/.
- Pronounciation of the final "a" as [ɔː], which sounds like "aw."
- Comedian Justin Lee Collins (see video to the right)
- Midlands English can be broken into two different types, East Midlands and West Midlands.
- The East is characterized by how the dialect tends to drop r’s and and pronounce strong h’s. The dialect also has a tendency to change “ou” to u.
- The dialect tends to stick to Received Pronunciation, also referred to as “posh” English. West Midlands tends to differ from RP more than the dialect of East Midlands.
- The most famous person with a West Midlands accent is Ozzie Osbourne. In this dialect am is usually substituted in for are. And "bin" tends to take the place of “have been.”
- Specifically Brummie is the version of West Midlands spoken in Birmingham. It demonstrates all of the above characteristics.
- Ozzie Osbourne portrays the West Midlands accent.
Northern England English
- Northern English is dominated by the dialect referred to as Geordie.
- This dialect is prominent in the Newcastle area. It also resembles the southern Scottish accent.
- Specific ways this accent is expressed is in the substitution of “our” with “wor.”
- The you plural also takes on the pronunciation “youse.”
- Lee Mack is a famous comedian known for impersonations of the Geordie dialect.
- Welsh English is the dialect of English most commonly found in Wales.
- It contains words and grammatical styles that are derived from Welsh, causing many people to consider it a hybrid language.
- A common feature of Welsh English is ending sentences with the subject instead the predicate, as in “Fed up, I am.” or “Running on Friday, he is.”
- Over time, Welsh English has become less of a dialect and more of an accent as many Welsh words have fallen out of common use.